Monday, May 25, 2020
Silvia Aguirre Ms.Riles December 4, 2015 English IV 1st Persuasive essay Hunger games, the time my mom left to cuba,and the right to the street of Memphis emplies that it is beneficial to be sheltered Rather than self governor. If we were all self governor most of us probably wouldn t be alive. In The hunger games by Suzanne collins, thirteen districts attempted to start a Revolution against the Capitol. They failed and district 13 was destroyed. An annual t elevised death match called the hunger games was created by the Capitol as punishment. Kato Katniss everdeen, a 16 year old boy from one of the districts volunteer for the hunger games after They had picked her 12 year old sister for reaping. She had to leave her family and be independent. she had to fight to be safe and survive. When she won or survived the game she was safe because She was protect by alot of people. In 2014 my mother took an emergency trip to cuba. Me and my sister were young, we were excited my mom was leaving because it was just gonna be used two alone for 2 weeks. We had a big house and all we could think about was having a good time and the freedom to do what ever we wanted to do. Me and my sister decide to throw a small house party. We really didn t plan it right because we had thought about it two days before she left so we could do the party the same day she left to cuba. We Had invited a couple of people toShow MoreRelatedArgumentative Essays About Obesity1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis not the case. There are many programs out there that target AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s obese citizens. However, the main focus seems to be towards the younger generation. Childhood obesity seems to be escalating throughout the past few years. This may Is this Essay helpful? Join OPPapers to read more and access more than 350,000 just like it! get better grades be due to the convenience of foods high in fat. Teens and adolescents rely on things they can afford. Fast-food restaurants and low-cost candy is affordableRead MoreThe Freedom Writers And Romeo And Juliet905 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCentury Community Charter Middle School and Animo Inglewood High School. Every year in middle school and in High School english would be on my schedule, sometimes even with two different english classes a year. We read different writing pieces, wrote essays, and learned techniques that help us develop our reading and writing skills. In middle school the writing tasks were easier and funner than high school. We read books like the Diary of Anne Frank, The Freedom Writers, and Romeo and Juliet, that IRead MoreOutline Of A Thesis Statement3601 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThesis / Claim Station: Your claim or thesis statement is the most important part of your argumentative essay. It is the sentence where you state your main argument and outline how you will prove it. There are many ways to structure a thesis statement, but we will work on one specific model: counter-claim-reasons (CCR). Here is an example: Although surveillance cameras may be expensive, schools should install them because they increase safety, reduce vandalism, and keep both teachers and studentsRead MoreThe Effects Of Television On Childhood Obesity1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Effects of Television on Childhood Obesity Essay It is evident that the rate of obesity is steadily increasing in North America and has reached an all-time high (Novonty 2015). This is due to the lack of physical activity, increased consumption level of unhealthy foods, and the prominent amount of exposure to media such as Television (TV). Although TV has not been proven to be a direct cause for obesity, it does however contribute to the development of children and adolescence obesity due toRead MoreInstructive Text Types11631 Words Ã |Ã 47 Pagesclassification helps to establish specific correlations between purpose and extra-linguistic context. The third chapter represent the directive instructive text type; here we have legal texts, statutory instructions, practical instructions, persuasive texts, and the last one being classified in commercial advertisements, political texts, religious and ethical appeal. I focus on these texts because I find them appropriate to daily routine, where the rules make our lives and we followRead MoreMarketing Exam Preparation for Monash Diploma 2 Students9523 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesExam Preparation MCD 2050 Marketing Section A Ã¢â¬â Long Essay (4o marks) It will have a quite from Phillip Kotler Ã¢â¬â donÃ¢â¬â¢t even read the frigginÃ¢â¬â¢ quote Read the bit below the quote, it will have something like this: A. What customer value is (3.5 marks) Ã¢â¬â page 7 in the textbook B. How marketing creates and deliver values (3o marks) * Start with market research the idea of giving data about consumer behavior * Why do we need marketing research * 3 main sources of information Read MoreMarketing Exam Preparation for Monash Diploma 2 Students9515 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesExam Preparation MCD 2050 Marketing Section A Ã¢â¬â Long Essay (4o marks) It will have a quite from Phillip Kotler Ã¢â¬â donÃ¢â¬â¢t even read the frigginÃ¢â¬â¢ quote Read the bit below the quote, it will have something like this: A. What customer value is (3.5 marks) Ã¢â¬â page 7 in the textbook B. How marketing creates and deliver values (3o marks) * Start with market research the idea of giving data about consumer behavior * Why do we need marketing research * 3 main sources of information Read MorePopular Culture and Violent Behavior Essay11795 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pages from McGraw Hill Education Centre in California, stating that: Violent behaviour is learned. Children and teens learn it from adults and see it on television and in movies. Messages in sports, in the lyrics in music, and even some games reinforce violence. The more violence people see, the more willing they are to act violently.  This section will also look at whether solutions like the one provided by Laura Finley regarding abstinence can feasibly have an impactRead MoreNcfe Teaching Assistant Essay7227 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesschool by carrying out a variety of tasks in order to create and maintain a safe, positive learning environment thus allowing teachers more time to focus on teaching. It is therefore paramount to remain flexible at all times. The purpose of this essay is to summarise the major learning points from the Teaching Assistant Diploma Course. I will address the nine subject areas separately. Supporting the teacher - Teachers are incredibly busy and the teaching assistant is a valued asset to ensureRead MoreFun with Literature10373 Words Ã |Ã 42 PagesOrman Ã¢â¬Å"Quitters Inc.Ã¢â¬ by Stephen King Name: __________________________________ Before reading 1. Have you (or someone close to you) had to give up something you really enjoyed? (Examples may be pop, candy, cell phone, video games, etc.) If yes, what difficulties did you face while trying to give it up? If no, what difficulties do you think you would have if you DID have to give up something you really enjoyed? _____________________________________________________________________________________
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The role of negotiation in conflict resolution Introduction Conflict or disagreement over the range of issues has become inherent aspect of modern organisational life. People from different cultural and education background work in an organisation. People working in an organisation may possess different goal and interest. People working in organisation may tend to different over a range of issues including organisational politics, organisational procedure, personal preference or political preference. It is also argued that conflict is essential characteristics of organisational life. Role of manager is paramount with regard to negotiating the conflict that arises in organisational life (http://www.sagepub.com/). Often lack ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Five major styles of managing the conflict have been described below; a) Integrating; this style of conflict management is concerned with identification of joint problem, confrontation of attitude and proposing the possible solution for the conflict. This style of conflict management is more effective for solving complex issues. Additionally, this style of conflict management tends to be more effective in long run. However, this style of conflict management may not be effective in managing the conflicts that surface out of differing values of employees. b) Obliging; this style of conflict management focuses upon reducing the difference by addressing the common interest of employees. This style of conflict resolution can prove extremely beneficial for the organisation because it seeks to promote cooperation among the employees. However, this style of conflict management is neither effective in solving the real cause of problem nor suitable for escalating the problems. c) Dominating; this style of conflict management is more suitable for resolving the conflicts involving personal interest. Managers often obey dominating style in order to force employees to obey. Often management want to implement unpopular working solution. Sometimes management may be concerned of achieving desired outcome within a tight deadline. These scenarios may require adoption of dominating conflict management style. Interestingly, this style of conflict resolution does not requireShow MoreRelatedConflict Management And Resolution Can Be Approached Through1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConflict management and resolution can be approached through numbers of ways that ramble from least to most threats. Legislation, political action or violent forces are common methods to avoid conflicts however talking with the dispute parties, negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and adjudication must be used in conflict resolution process. Conflict parties who cannot negotiate together efficient ly may hire mediator or negotiator to make easy negotiation procedure. Thus mediation is considered asRead MoreDispute Resolution Processes Essay1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDispute Resolution Processes Wherever there is a human-interaction, conflict is virtually unpreventable. For-instance, some conflict may well erupt a dispute in any structure of relationships, and other perhaps resulting in extremely compound international confrontation and hostility. It isnt that they cant see the solution. It is that they cant see the problem (G. K. Chesterton). Consequently, dispute resolution processes have been developed to manage and intervene in these types ofRead MoreEssay about Conflict Resolution Case Study1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConflict Resolution Case Study Conflict is inescapable, having the ability to recognize, understand, and resolve conflicts are important in both personal and professional lives. Myatt (2012) states that conflict in the workplace is unavoidable; if left unresolved, workplace conflict may result in loss of productivity and the creation of barriers that can inhibit creativity, cooperation, and collaboration. It is vital to embrace conflict and address problems through effective conflict-resolutionRead MoreMediation, Conciliation and Arbitration in Conflict Management1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION IN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Outline a. Introduction b. Definitions of conflict c. Conflict management d. Negotiation, Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration as in Conflict Management e. Recommendation f. Summary/Conclusion Introduction Conflict is a natural phenomenon in every human societal living. It exits whenever people or groups disagree over which goals or values to pursue and the method and timing to be adopted in that regard. Since conflict is inevitable, it must be properlyRead MoreThe Process Of Conflict Resolution1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction The process of conflict transformation includes numerous types of practices and approaches. It is crucial for a conflict resolution practitioner to be able to self-assess the entire practice of intervention to get a clear notion of why the approach that has been used was successful or caused fail. Conflict interveners whose practices are well established on theories of conflict resolution and ongoing researches need to refine their assumptions and skills through an extensive processRead MoreConflict Resolution Was Created By Jeff Muir Essay895 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSummary Conflict Resolution was created by Jeff Muir. The main idea revolves around the idea that conflict occurs when one needs something from another and is not receiving that need. The resolution of conflicts grows out of that idea, and involves three basic steps. The first step circles around clearly expressing the need. The next step is figuring out if that need can be met, or if it cannot. Step three is negotiation to see if the need can be met a different way, or management of conflict. If theRead MoreDispute Resolution : A Conflict Diagnosis Approach1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDispute Resolutions Many people go to litigation for resolving disputes without knowing the alternatives that may possibly be more beneficial to them. The textbook, Ã¢â¬Å"Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Conflict Diagnosis ApproachÃ¢â¬ is a great book that defines and explains the different types of dispute resolutions that can be used to settle a conflict. Some of the dispute resolutions discussed in the book are suitable for specific disputes. And the different type of dispute resolutions has differentRead MoreInternal And Dispute Resolution Procedures1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesactivities to successfully develop business decisions. Different of interest, misunderstandings, etc. are usually common issues when dealing within international negotiations. In Lucid-Black Box case, is evident that exist several conflicts that could be addressed by using SCR practices such as finding sources of conflict and dispute resolution procedures. Proper solutions of how to deal with the current situation will be also provided giving some insights of how develop trust-based relationships. SummaryRead MoreDiscussion11485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDynamics of Conflict Resolution. Focus on emotional resolution. Review Chapter 8 in your course text, The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution, and pay particular attention to the approaches of negotiation (distributive, integrative, interest-based, and positional). Review the article, Address the concern, not the emotion. Note the emotions that arise from each concern. Review the article, DRT Interview: Roger Fisher and Daniel Shapiro on Negotiating, paying particular attention to the role of emotionRead MoreThe Impact Of Conflict Management On The Business World1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Role of IT in Conflict Management David McNamee Webster University Dr. Bold MNGMNT 5000 Ã¢â¬Æ' Table of Contents 3 Introduction 4 Early Development of Conflict Management 5-6 Conflict Management in the Business World 6-7 Nation to Nation Conflict Management 7 Summary 8 References Introduction Conflict Management has been in constant use since the beginning of time between all species, particularly humans. With the dawning of the internet and its increasing use throughout
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Significant efforts to develop a journalistic identity and media freedom have stumbled badly in Central Asia, primarily Turkmenistan. The state controlled media system that is currently in place has prevented any citizen voice in Turkmen media. Since 1992, journalism and free media in Turkmenistan have been on a downward spiral. Unfortunately, prospects for developing a believable, fact-based journalism look grim for this region. Thus, the citizens of Turkmenistan are forced to be unaware of the world around them and to accept that all information is altered by the state. Journalism and media in the Central Asian region such as Turkmenistan are in worse shape than the rest of the Western world. To research this idea, secondary research sources are used to develop a more concrete idea about the state of media in Turkmenistan. One of the most confounding elements of the research found is that journalism in Turkmenistan is a hopeless occupation. Many of the citizens are forced to fear the occupation, and thus, be forced to pursue another avenue. Consequently, those who endeavor to aid the state of media and journalism in Turkmenistan should expect minimal result. Many attempts to relinquish media freedom have led to empty promises and low expectations. Based on the history of the region, the future of journalism and media seems negative. Unfortunately, with over two terms of dictators promoting the state-run media, the citizens of Turkmenistan are stuck in a downwardShow MoreRelatedEssay about Turkmenistan: A Nation of Contradictions1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTurkmenistan: A Nation of Contradictions In October 2001, the Central Asian country Turkmenistan celebrated its tenth year of independence. Formerly the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (T.S.S.R), Turkmenistan gained its sovereignty with the collapse of its communist counterpart, the Soviet Union in 1991. However, there is much to be questioned about the status of the Ã¢â¬Å"democraticÃ¢â¬ republic which operates Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan functions as a government who has elected a lifelongRead MoreMessi Is the Best Player776 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbillion Muslims worldwide, fewer than one fifth of whom are Arab. Islam is the principal religion of much of Asia, including Indonesia (which has the world s largest Muslim population), Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, the Arabian Peninsula states, and Turkey. India also has one of the world s largest Muslim populations, although Islam is not the principal r eligion there. In Africa,Read MorePreventing the Desertification of the Aral Sea Region Essay1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesregarding the once abundant Aral Sea, which once was one of the premier ecosystems featured prominently throughout Central Asia. The Aral Sea, which is situated in Central Asia between several countries, which include Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. According to Phillip-Whish-Wilson, the Aral Sea was once the Ã¢â¬Å"forth largest inland body of water on earth with a surface area of 66,000 kilometers squared.Ã¢â¬ (Whish-Wilson 2002, 29). Additionally, it supported Ã¢â¬Å"75 percent of Central AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s populationRead MoreEssay on Oil Export for a Unified Caspian Oil Conglomerate2961 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages 11 300 Turkmenistan 0.6 80 80.6 125 159 200 Total 10 233 243 1130 1292.2 3700 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Caspian Sea region is bounded by Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Russian and Kazakhstan occupy the northern half of the sea coastline and Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Iran take upRead More The Post-Soviet Reemergence of the Russian Empire1854 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesits states seceded and founded new nations and Russia lost significant power over the region. The new Russian Federation, in an effort to reestablish Soviet supremacy, has launched a neo-imperialistic campaign to once again have political, economic and security control over the area today known as the Caucasus. Principally, Russia wants to have political control over the area consisting of the lands of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Georgia and Chechnya as well as the Caspian Sea. FurthermoreRead MoreSex Trafficking : The Exploitation Of Women And Children1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmaking significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. There is also a Tier 2 Watch List, and this is Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. They also have the absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing; There is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combatRead MorePoint Paper Caucasus Region1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestransport to western markets. Azerbaijan uses this energy development to build strategic partnerships and ensure international attention for its independence. Since 2017 various U.S. Army reserve engineer units participated in stability related building efforts to upgrade the Azerbaijani infrastructure. a. In the south region in 2015 the SAPP (South Azeris People Party) formed to represent the people of this region. It was unable to affect change and the group, however it gave birth in 2016 to the SouthRead MoreC210 Point Paper Cacausus Region1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis continuing efforts to sustain and increase its economic growth by protecting proven oil reserves from deep water Caspian Basin oilfields and securing its transport to western markets. Azerbaijan uses this energy development to build strategic partnerships and attract international attention in favor of its independence. Since 2017 the U.S. has provided support to Azerbaijan through various U.S. Army Reserve engineer units participation in stability related construction efforts directed at upgradingRead MoreDrilling For Oil : Good For The Economy1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat drilling has on the environment, and explore possible solutions to this argument. I will argue that with careful and strict regulation, dri lling needs to take place in ANWR as a short term solution to the significant renewable energy problems that America is facing. Significant effort will be required to develop more efficient drilling methods and alternative fuel sources. Those who argue for drilling in ANWR suggest that drilling in ANWR will decrease our dependency on foreign oil. Oil productionRead MoreThe Epidemic Of Eastern Europe And Central Asia1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages substance use remains an important driver of new infectoins. . Implementation of known interventions to reduce transmission in IDUs has been impeded by challenges in scaling up opioid substitution therapy (OST) as well as other harm reduction efforts such as needle exchange. The use of OST is illegal in Russia and access to these services is limited io other countries. Antiretroviral therapy in the region became widely (but not universally) available after 2002. However, as noted below, access
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Losing Innocence: Fallen Angels find the true meaning of war Essay Fallen Angels, written by Walter Dean Myers, is a novel that tells about the story of young boys going into battle during the Vietnam War. There are many themes in Fallen Angels but the main theme is the loss of innocence. The title makes reference to these themes. And the boys in the book have dreams of losing their virginity and drinking alcohol for the first time. They are thrown into a harsh reality when they are shown the trials of war. In the end, they understand that the movies that depict heroicness and honor are just images of a false idea; that war is full of chaos and horror. The title of Fallen Angels is the greatest indicator of the theme. All of the young soldiers are angels in the sense that they are na ve and innocent. This is explained in chapter four when Myers calls these young boys angel warriors. They have not seen the terrible things that happen in war and therefore feel invincible to the danger they are to encounter. The fallen in the title indicates the loss of innocence that makes them angels. Though losing innocence is something that every young person goes through, these boys must grow up fast during war. Richie, the narrator and protagonist, and the members of his squad fantasize of their first sexual experiences. Peewee, a member of Richies squad, even sets goals for himself. He says he will drink wine from a corked bottle, smoke a cigar, and make love to a foreign woman. These are all immature ideas the boys have but they are soon taught that the real things that must focus on are not alcohol and sex, but the virtues and values they will learn as a soldier. During their battles the squad sees that survival is not something that is taught but a matter of pure chance. They see their allies shooting allies. Their close friends in the war are killed and they must face the reality that getting out alive is luck. The goal of killing the enemy turns into just trying to stay alive yourself. And when their time is done they are faced with mourning for those who fell and bitter sweet relief that it is over. The theme, loss of innocence, in Fallen Angels is shown all throughout the novel along with many other important themes. The title, experiences of the characters, and lessons learned in the book are all things that contribute to this. The young boys of the squad are all immersed in a terrible environment in which their images of a glorious war are torn apart. They come out grown men who had to learn the trials of life the hard way.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
How does CSR affect competitive advantage Essay Example How does CSR affect competitive advantage Essay How does CSR affect competitive advantage Essay Introduction For many decades, corporate social responsibility (CARS) has been viewed as a waste of resources money, labor, time, etc. which conflicts with the firms responsibility to make profits in order to compensate its shareholders (Friedman, 1970; Henderson, 2001 ; Jensen, 2002; Levity, 1 958; Summary Ninepin, 2004). On the contrary, especially during the last years, many supporters of CARS came up with the argument that CARS provides a company with a series of specific benefits that very often will outweigh the expenditures. Some are even of the opinion that CARS is necessary for equines, both from an economic and a social point of view (Brown Fraser, 2006; Trucker, 1984; Kettle Lee, 2005; Meltzer, 1983; Porter Kramer, 2006). Screech (201 1 ) concludes by writing that the following two related conflicts could be solved by proving that CARS and profit-maximizing interests can go hand in hand: On the one hand, the argument that CARS is Just a waste of resources would be invalidated and on the other hand, CARS expenses could be Justified to the shareholders as compatible with the firms obligations and, thus, legitimate and economically beneficial. Although great amount of literature is being published about the connection of CARS and the financial performance of firms, it still lacks empirical support and is therefore vulnerable to the criticism that this relation is not a grounded fact, but rather wishful thinking by Its proponents (Rollover, Schmidt Runes, 2003; Screech, 2011). Therefore, this article aims at throwing light on the link between CARS and firm performance by assessing how CARS might influence a firms competitive advantage. Specifically, as many companies realize how important it is to attract highly skilled employees as a main component of their competitive advantage (Prefer, 1994; Tech, 1998; Turban Greening, 1997), the focus will be on the link between CARS and human resources. This article will start with a review of previous studies and research in this area, followed by an in depth analysis of relevant and underlying theories that describe how CARS affects competitive advantage via a firms human resources. Ultimately, this article will give Implications for Important future research and the mall findings will be concluded. Previous Research and Studies Although CARS has emerged as an Inescapable priority for business leaders in every entry (Porter Kramer. 2006), there Is no general agreement about whether CARS does contribute to the financial performance of firms or not. A lot of research has been conducted in order to prove the positive relationship between corporate financial performance (COP) and corporate social performance (SSP). Wood (1991 : 693) defines SSP as a business organizations configuration of principles of social responsibility, processes of social responsiveness, and policies, programs, and observable outcomes as they relate to the firms societal relationships. However, the exults of these studies have been inconclusive at best (Donaldson, 1999; Jones Wicks, 1999; McMillan Siegel, 2001; Roman, Hybrid Eagle, 1999). Other studies tried to find conceptual explanations for the lack or the existence of a relationship between SSP and COP, but could not provide answers (McMillan Siegel, 2001 ; society and business need each other now more than ever before. Companies depend on a healthy society, including health care, education, and equal opportunity, but also good government and property rights. These requirements are essential for productive workforce and will furthermore create an expanding demand for business. Simultaneously, this healthy society is also in the need of successful firms. Apart from creating Jobs and wealth, they are the main innovators that improve the standards and quality of living (Porter Kramer, 2006). Hence, it should be in the interest of every firm to conduct CARS, regardless of the possible relationship between SSP and COP. Firms behaving in a socially responsible manner benefit through the subsequent reputation, another topic with a huge body of literature. The reputation f a firm that is built on its social consciousness will not Just temper criticism by the public in case of a crisis (Porter Kramer, 2006), but will also help building a positive relationship to stakeholders, such as investors, suppliers, bankers, and customers (Bombers Channel, 1990). Again, from a financial perspective, reputation plays an extremely important role. Not only will it facilitate access to capital through the emanating positive relationship to investors, but with respect to SSP, reputation also has a higher correlation with COP than any other variable even corporate environmental performance (Brown Perry, 1994; Rollicks et al. , 2003). The return from reputation is, thus, the key to reaping benefits from SSP (Roberts Dowling, 2002). One way of reaping benefits from corporate reputation is by attracting a high quality workforce (Greening Turban, 2000; Turban Greening, 1997). However, the attraction of good employees is not the only channel through which good reputation through CARS affects a firms human resources, possibly leading to a competitive advantage. Research suggests that it also increases the goodwill of current employees towards their employer, which in turn can improve the companys financial outcomes (Davis, 1973; McGuire, Sundered Schneider, 1988; Haddock Graves, 1997). Furthermore, firms can turn instruments such as sponsoring of sports or cultural events into a competitive advantage by improving the morale of their employees and boosting productivity (Porter Kramer, 2002). Supplementary, it has been proved that scandals in regards to CARS will negatively influence employee morale and, thus, the firms performance (Screech, 2011). During the last decades, undress and thousands of articles about CARS have been published, many of them with a strong focus on financial aspects such as the relationship of SSP and COP. Surprisingly few dealt with the influence of CARS on human resources. Greening Turban (2000: 276) analyzed and confirmed that Job applicants will attempt to interview with firms, and will have a higher probability of accepting a Job offer from firms with positive SSP reputation. However, their study is based on a survey of only 39 students and did not focus on what exactly attracts employees and how these causes can be used to create a competitive advantage. Furthermore, a lot has changed during the last years, not only the importance of but also the ways companies pursue CARS. Therefore, these will be the main aspects in the remainder of this article. Theory and Implications for Future Research This section will introduce the most important theories that are relevant for an analysis of the relationship between CARS and competitive advantage. As this article section will start with an explanation of the importance of a quality workforce. Afterwards, theories will be presented which focus on how CARS can influence prospective (via firms attractiveness) or current employees. Quality Employees as a Source of Competitive Advantage There is a reason why statements like our employees are our strength can be found on the homepages and on promoting materials of many companies nowadays. The attraction of superior human resources and retaining them in the firm can provide firms with a sustained competitive advantage (Load Wilson, 1994; Prefer, 1994; Wright, Ferris, Hillier Karol, 1995). Additionally, especially in fields with labor shortage, such as IT or engineering, the attraction of quality applicants is becoming more and more important for the success of companies Jackson Schuler, 1990; Freeman Gowning, 1990). Those organizations that are able to attract the greater applicant pool of top-quality applicants can better utilize their selection system which results in a potential competitive advantage (Load Wilson, 1994; Turban Greening, 1997). As research suggests that employee attraction to a large extent is based on perceptions of the corporate image, which in turn is influenced by the firms SSP (Bombers Channel, 1990), the explanation is given of why many firms promote e. G. Their environmental or philanthropic programs in brochures for prospective applicants (Poe Courier, 1995). They want to demonstrate how socially responsible they act. That this can be successful is confirmed by the finding of Bauer and Amman- Smith (1996) that firms with a stance towards the natural environment are seen as more attractive firms than those without such a stance. The reason why companies should focus more on their employees is that researchers agree that a quality workforce has become more important than other sources of competitive advantage (Greening Turban, 2000). Previously, the success of firms was often attributed to their access to financial markets, product and process technology, patents, the placement of learning curves and economies of scale, etc. However, scholars have noted that the importance of those sources of success has decreased over time, while the selection and management of high quality employees has become a critical factor to success (Prefer, 1994; Snell, Wounds Wright, 1996). Knowledge-Based Theory Similarly, another body of literature suggests that a firms ability to create, manage and transfer knowledge is the key to its success (Feline Westerly, 2007; Grant, 1996), which also points out the importance of a quality workforce as one key to a nominative advantage. Authors suggest that intelligence, motivation, vision, experience, creativity, analytical abilities and commitment are some of the characteristics of quality employees (Tech, 1998). A firms success in the future depends largely on how well it can capture value from those knowledge assets (Tech, 1998). Hence, in order to succeed, a firm must take advantage of its workforce and be able to manage its knowledge. Although high quality employees can be viewed as a necessary condition for success in a modern knowledge economy, it is not a sufficient one (Greening Turban, 2000). The firm has to be able to develop the knowledge and talent into skills and competencies which are valuable, rare, inimitable by competitors, and unsustainable in order to develop a competitive The role of human resources in developing a firms competitive advantage is consistent with the resource-based theory of the firm. This theory suggests that every organization is simply a collection of unique capabilities and resources providing the foundation for the strategy of the organization and being the primary source of its competitive advantage and profitability (Barney, 1991/ 2011; Grant, 1991; Meyer, 1991). It assumes that firms acquire and develop these unique resources and capabilities over time and emphasizes that resources may not be mobile across companies, or easily imitable by other companies (Grant, 1991). As mentioned above, apart from physical resources, also human resources, such as talented managers or high quality employees, are highly important resources for firms (Barney, 1991; Meyer, 1991) and in a global economy, the skills of an organizations workforce are increasingly critical to the development of sustained competitive advantages (Throw, 1992). Additionally, SSP can be viewed as an organizational resource. Investments in SSP may assist firms in developing new capabilities, resources and competencies that are manifested in a firms structure, culture, technology and human resources (Barney, 1991; Russo Bouts, 1997; Heartfelt, 1984). For instance, SSP can help management to develop better processes, scanning skills, or information systems which will better prepare an organization for turbulences, external changes, or crises (Russo Bouts, 1997). The channels through which a companies SSP can affect these resources, especially the human resources, will be subject of discussion later in this article. Signaling Theory Another theory that may be relevant for understanding how a firms SSP may influence human resources, especially the attraction of quality employees, is the signaling theory. There exists a classical information asymmetry between the applicants and the employer. The applicant does not really know how working conditions, corporate culture, etc. Look like in the companies he or she is applying for. Signaling theory suggests that, due to the incomplete information about the company, applicants interpret all the information they receive as signals about e. G. The working conditions in the organization (Greening Turban, 2000). Organizational attributes, for example, provide prospective employees with information about how it would be like to be part of this organization. For instance, a firms formal social programs or policies towards stakeholders or developing political and social issues may attract applicants by serving as signals of the firms goals and commitment. Likewise, the policy to provide day care facilities or to manage diversity has an influence on organizational attractiveness as an employer, because it signals willingness to attract women and minorities and to treat them in a fair manner Greening Turban, 2000; Williams Bauer, 1994). Potential employees might interpret a companys SSP as a signal about its organizational values and norms. These values and norms affect the applicants perceptions of the working conditions and therefore also the companys attractiveness as an employer. Additionally, according to the person-organization fit theory (Kristin, 1996), it is expected that the prospective Job applicants specific values will influence the extent to which a firms SSP influences that attraction (Greening Turban, 2000: 259). Social Identity Theory influences human resources as well. This theory emphasizes that people classify themselves into specific social categories on the basis of different factors, as for example the organization they work for, and that the fact of being a member in those social categories influences peoples individual self-concept (Dutton, Dickered Hairball, 1994; Turban Greening, 1997). Hence, the self-image of employees is influenced by the reputation and the image of the employer. As mentioned earlier, a firms reputation is affected to a large extent by its corporate social performance. Consequently, social identity theory suggests that employees working for a firm with strong SSP will experience positive outcomes, such as an enhanced self-concept, just by being employed in this socially responsible firm (Greening Turban, 2000). Furthermore, as potential employees might expect to experience this enhanced self- concept, the attractiveness of firms that put a strong focus on acting socially responsible is positively affected as well. Definition of Research Gaps After having presented theories that suggest that the right employees can lead to a sustained competitive advantage and that there is relationship between CARS activities of an organization and its human resources, this article will now focus on issues where more research is needed in order to fully understand these relationships. Generally, there exists an almost inexhaustible amount of literature that analyzes the relationship of a firms SSP and its COP. A far smaller body of literature focuses on the link between SSP and human resources. Most of these articles build up theories and make suggestions, but not that much empirical research has been conducted yet to actually prove these theories or to contradict them. Research suggests that potential applicants are very aware of a companys SSP and that companies with a good CARS rating have a competitive advantage, because hey attract a larger amount of applicants and applicants that are of high quality. However, these studies by Greening and Turban (2000) and Turban and Greening (1997) are based on a survey of 39 students or even Just 34, respectively. Also, it can be assumed that those students were aware of the purpose of the study and, thus, were biased in regards to their answers. A study on a large scale needs to be conducted in order to get valuable results. Additionally, it needs to be conducted in different geographical regions of the world, as CARS plays completely different roles in the various societies. While it, for instance, is of great importance in most Western European or the Nordic countries, this is not necessarily the case in many South American or Asian countries. Furthermore, the ways how organizations pursue CARS has changed or at least become broader during the last years. Partnerships of business firms with non-governmental organizations (Nags) had been unthinkable a few decades ago, but have become an important issue nowadays. Many firms grant their employees a certain amount of days off, so that they can engage in Nags they support. Microsoft, for example, allows its employees to take three days off for this repose every year (Thomson, 2012). How do those CARS activities affect the attractiveness of firms? Which CARS activities affect a firms attractiveness the most? Since scholars argue that a quality workforce is becoming an increasingly important source for competitive advantage, these questions need to be addressed by future research. However, CARS does not Just affect a firms human resources via the employers SSP as well. In the framework of Mitchell, Eagle and Wood (1997), employees are seen as a crucial component to success and as a scarce resource. Therefore, they have power, legitimacy and some urgency, and are thus salient takeovers of the firm. It is a logical consequence that they are affected as well, when a firm aims at multiple stakeholders by pursuing CARS. According to Screech (201 1), the idea is that employees will be much more satisfied, if they feel that the beneficiaries of SSP are they, rather than some other external recipients of charitable contributions. Employee satisfaction, in turn, will help retain the employees and reduce turnover (Labeling Freeman, 2000), or positively influence the organizations operational efficiency (Branch Rodriguez, 2006), which can be the source of a competitive advantage. Future research might analyze how and which SSP strategies affect employee satisfaction or investigate if there are moderators that influence this relationship. Conclusion This article suggests that CARS and a firms human resources are interlinked with each other in many different ways. The analysis indicates that a quality workforce is becoming a crucial factor for gaining a competitive advantage and that quality employees can be attracted by a firms SSP. Furthermore, SSP positively influences the employee satisfaction which in turn might lead to a competitive advantage by boosting productivity and efficiency. However, this article aims at showing up areas in which more research has to be conducted in order to fully grasp the influence of corporate social responsibility on the human resources of firms. Especially, empirical research is needed to confirm the theories that have been proposed until now. But also in regards to the constantly changing ways of how companies pursue CARS, it is important to investigate which of them have the greatest impact on employees and their morale. Only then will it be possible for firms to capture the largest benefit of their CARS activities: the creation of a sustained competitive advantage.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Fundraising Plan - Assignment Example This year, Ã¢â¬Å"West Liberty websiteÃ¢â¬ (2014) emphasizes that the University requires a total of $ 4 million that will benefit the entire student community as well as, the community around the institution. The effect of the fundraising will reflect not only this year, but, also in many years to come. The fundraising will improve the institutions, athletic programs so that the institution can retain its Ã¢â¬ËnationÃ¢â¬â¢s finestÃ¢â¬â¢ athletics title. Ã¢â¬Å"The State JournalÃ¢â¬ (2014) was keen to note, that during the last summer, the institution started a new masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in Physician Assistant Studies that will require qualified lecturers to be recruited as well as other supporting staff. This fundraising will enable the new degree program become a success and see that the graduates will become productive in their areas of expertise. Garecht (n.d) states that a fundraising plan requires a reliable team and the use various fundraising techniques that will help in making the most from a campaign. The first fundraising tactic that will be used events which will be both major and minor. The minor event will be a Ã¢â¬Å"gala dinner-danceÃ¢â¬ that will be held on the 20th of October, 2014. The aim of planning this gala event is to raise approximately $1 million dollars out of the $ 4 million target of this year. In kind donations are welcome from our donors and parents through direct mail or online giving through our website page. The fundraising will also target our past and potential donors from banks and other financial institution for a target of $ 1.5 of the total $4 million this year. The institution will also hold a Ã¢â¬Å"walk for Western Liberty UniversityÃ¢â¬ campaign that will be held on the 30 of November, 2014 with a target of $ 1 million. The annual final event that will close this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s fu nd raising will be a golf tournament and, thanksgiving at the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s stadium that will host all NCAA Division-II institutions on the 20th of December, 2014. The target for